Liquid, flowing in a centralized water supply, only very conventionally can be considered suitable for use for technical purposes – for washing, washing dishes, etc. To bring it to the norm, it is necessary to use different filters to purify water. There are low-cost installations, but they tend to be low-performance and average cleaning quality, and there are expensive systems that can produce perfect results.
Different types of water filters are needed to bring it to be normal.
It is no better to deal with water supply from a well or a well. There is still a high probability of bacterial contamination, so the cleansing should be even better. In general, it is necessary to take a sample for analysis and then, according to the results, select the required types of filters for water purification. In private homes, it is usually a multi-stage system, which as a result, gives the water of drinking quality.
Cleansing from mechanical impurities
The water that flows in our water supply contains grains of sand, fragments of rust, metal, winding, etc. Their presence has a bad effect on the durability of locking fixtures (cranes, valves, etc.) and household appliances. Therefore, apartments and private houses, but at the entrance, filters for their removal. The types of filters for cleaning water from mechanical impurities are few. It’s with grids and disks as filtering elements.
The filter element in mechanical filters is a grid. These filters are divided into roughly (300-500 microns) and thin cleaning devices (larger than 100 microns) by cell size. They can stand in a cascade – first rough cleaning (mud), then thin. Often the coarse cleaning filter is put at the entrance to the pipeline, and devices with a smaller cell put in front of the household device, as different techniques can require varying degrees of water purification.
By the orientation of the flask in which the filter element is installed, they are straight and oblique. Obliques create less hydraulic resistance, so most often put them. When installing, it is necessary to observe the direction of the flow. It is indicated on the body by the arrow.
There are two types of mechanical filters – with and without the auto industry. Devices without the car industry are small in size. Their entrance/weekend diameters are selected by the size of the pipe in which they are installed. The case’s material – stainless or brass, threaded compounds – different (outdoor or internal carving pick up as necessary). The cost of this type of mechanical filter is low – in the region of hundreds of rubles, although branded can cost much more.
Since the nets are clogged and must be cleaned from time to time, the lower part of the flask is removable. If necessary, it is unscreened, removed, and washed the grid, then all returned (all works are carried out pre-blocking water).
Netted with the auto industry
Mechanical filter with auto-washing (self-compromising) has at the bottom of the flask with a filter element of the pipes and a crane. The pipe is removed to the sewer with a hose or a piece of pipe. If you need to wash such a filter, open the faucet. Water under pressure washes the contents into the sewer. The faucet closes, you can operate further.
This type of mechanical water filter often contains a gauge. It determines whether the grid is clogged or not. The pressure is lower – it’s time to clean the filter. If the flask of the device is transparent, the gauge may not be – you can determine the appearance of the mesh or walls of the flask. In this segment, oblique water filters are rare but still happen.
A reduction valve can be built into the hull to neutralize pressure swings. There are models with the ability to install a unit of the car industry.
Strapping this type of mechanical filter is a little more difficult – you need to get it down the drain, but there are also different types of threaded models so that you can use as few adapters as possible.
Mechanical cleaning filters can be clutch, can – flank. Flanking is usually mainline equipment for high-pressure and diameter water pipes. It can be used in the water supply of a private house.
Disc (ring) filters
This type of equipment is less common, although less prone to ingestion, has a large filtration area, and can delay different-sized particles.
The filtering element is a set of polymer discs on the surface of insular scratches of different depths. Discs in the collected state are tightly pressed to each other. Water passes through the spoons in discs. They settle particles of a larger diameter. The movement of the water is spiral-like so that the weights are removed qualitatively.
When the water filter is clogged, the discs are taken out of the case, pushed, and washed. After that, put in place. Periodically, the drives must be replaced. The life of the filter element depends on the amount of pollution and the quality of the discs themselves. There are models in the car industry.
Affordable types of water filters before drinking
Cleaned from mechanical impurities, water can be used for household needs and served in household appliances, but it is suitable only conditionally after boiling for drinking or cooking. To drink it without boiling, fine-cleaning filters are needed, which hold up a large part of the substances dissolved in the water and decontaminate it. Consider how to make water from the drinking tap and the types of water filters used.
The easiest but not very productive way to make water from the tap drinking – to pass it through the filter jug. The cleansing takes place in a replacement cartridge through which the water passes. The good cartridge contains the following filtering substances:
- polypropylene fibers to deposit residues of mechanical impurities;
- activated charcoal with additives to remove microorganisms, chlorine compounds;
- ion exchange resin for the excretion of manganese and calcium salts, radionuclides, iron compounds, heavy metals;
- porous activated charcoal to lighten water, deposition of organics.
Filters-jugs differ in the composition of the cartridge, its resource (how much water can be cleaned), and volume. The smallest models of desktop filters can clean 1.5-1.6 liters of water at a time, the largest – about 4 liters. Just keep in mind that the “filter volume” graph indicates the bowl’s volume, the useful volume (the amount of purified water) is much less – about half.
|Name||Bowl volume||Cleaning Module Resource||Degree Of Cleaning||Additional Device|
|Aquafor Art “Ice Age”||3.8 litres||300 litres||Reduces water stiffness, removes mechanical and organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||—|
|AQUAFOR Prestige||2.8 litres||300 litres||Slightly reduces the rigidity of water, removes mechanical, organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||Resource indicator|
|AQUAFOR Premium “Dacha”||3.8 litres||300 litres||Reduces water stiffness, removes mechanical and organic impurities, active chlorine, heavy metals||Large funnel – 1.7 litres|
|Barrier Extra Filter Jug||2.5 litres||350 litres||Depending on the type of filter||Cassettes under different types of water they go into q to the cost of a jug|
|Barrier Grand Neo Filter Jug||4.2 litres||350 litres||Depending on the type of filter||Cassettes under different types of water they go into q to the cost of a jug|
Filtering nozzle on the faucet
A very compact filter for running tap water, which is put on the faucet. The purification rate is from 200 ml/min to 6 l/min. The degree of purification depends on the composition of the filter part but usually is not much different from the filter jugs.
According to the way they work, there are two types of filters on the faucet – some are put on just before its application. Others have the ability to switch to the mode “without cleaning.” It is more convenient, of course, the second option, but the switches often break. As a temporary measure – a great way out, but “on permanent” it is better to choose another device.
Under/wash filters are a way to get plenty of drinking water
For better performance and better water purification, filters are used to install under or in the sink, and they can be mounted on the wall.
There are two types of such systems – cartridge and reverse osmosis systems. Cartridges – cheaper, and this – their plus, and minus – is that you need to monitor the state of the filter element and change it in time, otherwise, all the accumulated dirt goes into the water.
Nozzles on a tap to clean the water
Reverse osmosis systems are more technologically advanced equipment with much higher cost, but the quality of cleaning and performance is much higher. These water treatment plants use a multi-layered membrane, each layer of which delays contamination of a certain type.
In cartridge filters, the quality of cleaning depends on the number of cleaning steps – individual filtering elements that “catch” a certain type of contamination. There are systems single-stage, there are two, three, and even four-step filters.
In single-stage are used universal inserts, having a multi-layered structure. They are inexpensive, but whether satisfied you will be the degree of cleaning is difficult to predict. The composition of water in different regions is very different and it would be desirable to select/replace filters as needed. And so, we have to hope for the versatility of the liner.
The water cartridge filter deviceThee case consists of several flasks in multi-stage cartridge filters, each with a separate/special filtering element that removes certain contaminations. The flasks are connected sequentially with overflows, flowing from one flask to another, water and purified. In this case, it is possible to pick up types of filters for water purification specifically for your analysis, which will undoubtedly improve the quality of cleaning.
Table cartridge filters for running water
The cheapest version of cartridge filters is installed next to the sink. These are miniature models that are small in size. It can be one or two-step. The body has a small-sized faucet. Hoses connect the filters to a special outlet of the mixer, it can be connected directly to the water supply.
These are usually cartridge single-stage flask filters that are put after a mechanical filter. They remove a significant amount of impurities, making water suitable for drinking and protecting household appliances from the formation of scum, other sediments. Their disadvantage is the need to change the filtering elements.
For the convenience of tracking the condition and degree of contamination of the flask make transparent. If there is visible contamination, the cartridge should be replaced with another one. In some models, it is possible to restore the cleaning element on its own – it is washed under running water. In other models it is forbidden to do this, so read the instructions carefully.
The above are distinguished by a large number of flask cases, each of which is equipped with a cartridge that removes different types of pollution. The more cleaning steps, the cleaner the water is produced at the exit. To select the composition of filtering elements should be under the specific composition of water (carefully read the specifications and description).
Multi-stage water purification systems produce good results
These installations can also be put on the highway, or you can put under the sink and get high quality drinking water.
The most advanced water purification technology today is reverse osmosis. It uses multi-layered membranes that pass only water and oxygen molecules, without missing even the smallest pollution. Water is obtained almost without salt content, which is also not good. This is the lack of reverse osmosis systems. To neutralize it in the installations are equipped with mineralizers, which add the necessary minerals.
Filters to cleanse water from dissolved substances
In addition to mechanical impurities in tap water, there is still a decent part of the Table Mendeleev: iron, mercury, manganese, potassium, calcium (salts of rigidity from which sequence is formed), etc.
to make the water become drinking, apply different types of filters to purify water
To remove iron
Most often in water from wells or wells there is a large amount of iron. It gives water a reddish tint and a specific taste, is deposited on the walls of sanitary appliances, clogs the locking fixture, so it is desirable to remove it. Doing this makes sense if the amount of iron exceeds 2 mg/l.
The bivalent iron dissolved in water can be removed from the water with a catalytic filter. This is a large cylinder, which falls asleep catalysts, a small processor controls the work. That is, this equipment requires the availability of power.
The filling in the catalytic filter repeatedly speeds up the process of oxidation of bivalent iron and its fallout into the sediment. Depending on the filling, can be removed and impurities manganese, chlorine, other substances dissolved in water, also in the process of cleaning settle on the bottom of mechanical particles. Removal of accumulated deposits takes place on a given schedule, usually at night. Filling is washed under the pressure of water, everything merges into the sewer, for the time of washing the water supply stops. Catalytic filters are complex and expensive, but they are the most durable ones.
Another way to remove iron and water is aeration. In a cylinder with pump pumped air is fed in the form of a small weight water (through a nozzle). The iron in it reacts with the oxygen of the air and its oxides are filtered out. There are two types of filters for water purification of this type – pressure and pressure-free. These plants may be supplied with an oxidizer – hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite for more active oxidation. In this case, the biological purification of water – from microbes and bacteria.
Cleansing water from stiff salts
Filters with ion-exchange resins are used to soften the water. In the process of interaction with water, harmful impurities are replaced with neutral or useful (increased amount of iodine and fluoride).
Externally, this equipment is a tank partially filled with ion exchange material. Paired with it is a second similar tank-regenerator, filled with a highly concentrated solution of salt (sold special in tablets, high degree of purification).
Ion exchange resins perfectly remove stiff salts.
Pros of filters for water purification of this kind – high performance, low noise at work, a rare replacement of filling (it is enough for 5-7 years). Ion exchange filters are the best choice for softening water. Cons – in need to use a regeneration tank with concentrated saline solution. To get drinking water, you need to put a filter with activated charcoal.