High-quality, clean water is a necessity for various economic and production processes. If it has various pathogenic bacteria and viruses, such fluid becomes unsuitable and often dangerous to human health. Water decontamination is removing harmful viruses and bacteria that can cause infectious diseases from the original fluid. The methods of purification depend on the degree of contamination of the water and the conditions in which the treated liquid will be used (e.g., in pharmacology or industry).
The degree of contamination of drinking water is determined by bacteriological analysis. The total number of bacteria also shows the number of indicator bacteria of the E. coli group (abbreviated BGCP) per 1 mg of water. E.coli bacteria (the main type of BGC) can detect fecal contamination. According to SanPin standards, the total allowable number of bacteria data can be up to 50. The infection rate is determined by a color index that reports the content of E.coli per liter of water.
Ways to decontaminate water
The main ways to remove viruses and bacteria from drinking water are:
- chemical involves the use of specialized chemical solutions with biologically active substances, ionization. In reagent decontamination, it is necessary to adhere to the exact doses of chemicals and their reaction time.
- Physical, produced by the use of ultraviolet radiation. The original liquid is first cleaned of mechanical impurities with the appropriate filters, then removed microorganisms, helminths, and then used decontamination methods.
- combined, it involves the use of at once reagent and non-reagent methods.
Chlorination is a method of reagent decontamination of water. It is characterized by availability and relatively low reagents, liquid and gas chlorine, easy implementation, and maintenance.
The advantages of the method can be attributed to the after-action of chlorine. The re-growth processes of bacteria and viruses stop with low chlorine content in water, which is not harmful to humans.
Features of chlorine-containing reagents
Chlorine dioxide is quite high. In the process of use, it does not emit chlorogenic compounds, which increases the overall quality of water. Unlike chlorine, the substance is safe when transported, and the solution is prepared immediately before use.
Other chlorine-containing reagents: calcium and sodium hypochlorite, chlorine lime, also provide safer water decontamination. However, the substances involve significant volumes of solution (five times more than a chlorine solution). Still, long-term storage is impossible because chlorine-containing reagents are decomposed with a decrease in the amount of the active substance.
If you decontaminate water by zoning, it is possible to form an unpleasant smell of liquid. These phenomena can occur due to the release of oxygen, adversely affecting the cells of microorganisms – their oxidation occurs. Based on the water analysis and the conclusions made about the amount of pollution in the original water, the right dose of ozone for decontamination is determined. As a rule, its amount is small. Exceeding these standards can cause an unpleasant odor and the possibility of damaging parts of the system with adverse corrosion.
Zoning allows you to get constant quality indicators. Suppose all norms and requirements for the process of decontamination of water by zoning are observed, good and permissible indicators of organic content in the final water and the desired absence of products containing toxins in it. Zoning is suitable for centralized water supply, wastewater decontamination in industrial plants, housing, utility facilities, agricultural production, as it requires a significant amount of electricity, skilled maintenance, special equipment. Compared to the chlorination method, zoning is environmentally friendly but requires many costs and has a short-lived effect.
Ultraviolet water decontamination
The most modern and most used method of water decontamination is the use of ultraviolet sterilization plants.
The technology involves the use of special lamps with UV radiation. If you consider the very design of the installation, you can notice its simplicity and, at the same time, reliability. The basis of the system is ultraviolet lamps, which are placed in metal tubes. An integral part of the installations is the presence of quartz covers where the lamps themselves are placed.
If we talk about the working principle, we can see its simplicity and fast speed to achieve the necessary water quality. Thus, the water gets into the metal body, where it washes the quartz case without touching the lamp itself. Inside the case, it receives the necessary dose of radiation from ultraviolet rays. UV rays remove the smallest formations and bacteria, while the composition, according to the indicators of useful and necessary substances, remains unchanged. The release of poisonous substances resulting from the use of bactericide lamps does not occur, which contributes to a harmless increase in the dose of radiation. The method is suitable for both private and industrial applications, as it is easy to maintain and is a quite low cost.
Since the water supply system features at different facilities are individual, high-quality integrated water decontamination requires the use of combined options. For example, UV sterilization or zoning with periodic chlorination is widely used. For the most accurate selection of filtering devices, it is necessary to conduct a preliminary analysis of water for the content of pathogenic viruses of all sorts of impurities.
The pros and cons of water decontamination
The main drawback of chlorination and zoning methods is that neither are reagents, which have several consequences. For example, the chlorination method requires additional attention and additional measures to transport and store chlorine-containing substances. It is impossible to allow any leaks, as the harm to human health caused by chlorine compounds is irreparable. Adverse effects can be exerted not only on humans but also on pipeline systems by the phenomenon of corrosion.
The use of zoning as a fundamental method of decontamination is also not effective and has several limitations. For example, these systems are expensive to purchase and maintain. All this is due to the high safety technique in the operation of the plants. Increased requirements also apply to employees whose health depends on their qualifications and safe working conditions. The need to purchase expensive equipment is because ozone-oxygen compounds cause corrosion and expose systems to it.
Thus, the most reliable, used, and affordable method of decontamination of water is ultraviolet light treatment. These installations have almost no drawbacks while having several useful and important advantages. For example, UV decontamination agents effectively remove various microorganisms; moreover, they prevent further formation and reproduction. A big advantage of the systems is maintaining the physical and chemical composition of water unchanged. The requirements for staff are not high, and there are no special security conditions. There is no selection of by-products of treatment. The lack of large volumes of reagents and their storage systems is also a plus of these systems. And the fundamental advantage for both production and private use is the conformity of such indicators as price and quality.
Diesel specialists will help you find individual water decontamination products for your home or production facility, install equipment, turnkey cleaning stations.