How Do Water Filters Work

Water filters are increasingly used in our homes. With the evolution of water filtration models and price improvements, the market now has different brands and models of water filters, and we decided to give them an idea of what they are and answer the question: How does a water filter work?

Municipal water in Mexico, although it should be drinkable, is not. That’s why we’re forced to buy bottled water to drink. In addition to the high costs of purchasing water taps, we are not sure of the quality of the water we are drinking is the best. Water-bottling companies mention that in such a small mouth, the bottle cannot be ingested rather well.
Buying bottled water in a plastic container could be carcinogenic. It is a container that has been turned around many times and is exposed to the sun or shocks and which degrade the plastic. That’s why we provide a healthier and easier way to get clean drinking water, which is obtained directly from your home’s main water network.

The most commonly used water filtration systems are:

Sediment filtration.

Sediment filtration is the most basic filter that exists. It is filtration using a filter cartridge that retains suspended solids and is measured in microns. Filtration microjets range from 1 micron to 5 microns. These can be polyspun type, spun or pleated. Also called polishing filters.


Activated charcoal

The activated charcoal water purifier is the most used by man and very easy to find on the market, and it is economical, easy to use and small. Carbon particles are porous and active and absorb all organic pollutants such as detergents, pesticides, pesticides, decaying food and chlorine from water.



Distillation is a proven boiling method in which water vapour is condensed back into liquid water. This method is the most expensive by the caloric energy required to evaporate water. There are some attempts by solar distillers, but they are still in prototypes.


Ionic exchange for smoothing.

Ionic exchange resins: it is a material that is manufactured already loaded with ions (sodium), and when passing the hardness makes the exchange and gets the hardness (calcium and magnesium). These pearls filled with sodium and aluminosilicate attract calcium and magnesium, and that’s how they trap these minerals while releasing sodium.



Reverse osmosis.

These are the complete filtration systems out there and safest; reverse osmosis is now an economical technology. Just let the water through and retain all the contaminants present. The reverse osmosis filter system also uses sediment filtration and activated carbon, the most important reverse osmosis membrane that filters contaminants based on molecular size.


Water filtration or purification?

At the time of our grandparents, the water was not so contaminated; at that time, the most common was boiling and, for more advanced systems, by distillation. In most homes or leaving camp, boiled water was the most efficient system for removing most contaminants, but it will not remove heavy metals and other liquids.
As the world of water filtration evolved, more systems were incorporated to help filter water from its impurities. Today, the best filtration system is reverse osmosis, and this is considered the “water purification” system due to water quality at the end of the process.


How does water filter work?

Let’s see how each stage of purification works:

How does water filter work


Activated charcoal.

Adsorption is the power of activated charcoal. As water is purified through activated charcoal, organic pollutants are trapped into the pores of the material. However, coal does not retain nitrates, fluoride, sodium, heavy metals and microorganisms. It should be remembered that activated carbon cartridges become clogged with use, and that’s why you should replace these filters frequently.


DISINFECTion by UV light.

Ultraviolet light is the most popular disinfection method, as it does not add to the water a chemical that leaves a residual, as does chlorine or another sanitiser. Home UV disinfection systems are compact and high efficiency. The only drawback is that the first glass with water can come out hot by the contact time the water had the bulb on. Remember not to disconnect the lamp ever because it can stop sterilizing bacteria.



This could work, especially to remove heavy metals and other solids. However, in reality, any contaminant that is not removed by heat and converted into steam before the boiling point of the water will also pass to the final product.


Ionic exchange.

Remember the cationic resin spheres? The water won’t contain carbonate inlays, but the sodium released into the water will make it a little salty. Ion exchangers treat water harshly through aluminosilicate spherical beads. Ions in water are exchanged with sodium ions. Hard water softeners usually function as a pre-treatment of reverse osmosis.


Change of pH with an alkalizer.

One of the water purification processes is to adjust the pH levels of water to acceptable levels of consumption. If you remember from school, pH7 is the drinking water level. Any point below 7 is acidic, and any point above it is alkaline. Both extremes are harmful to human tissue. For example, the bleach has a pH of 12 and apple juice has a pH of 3.5.

The normal pH range for drinking water ranges from 6.5 to 8.5. Alkaline water cartridges offer a pH of between 8.5 and 9 that economically increase pH.


Reverse osmosis.

While basic filtration systems offer three stages, reverse osmosis systems will incorporate more than five filtration stages. The stages are:

First step: suspended solids or sediments greater than 5 microns.

Second step: activated charcoal.

Step two: denser active coal.

Fourth step: reverse osmosis membrane.

Fifth step: post activated carbon filter to remove odours from water stored in the tank.

The only drawback of a reverse osmosis system is that it uses more water than conventional filters by the self-cleaning system.

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I am tech writer who is passionate about technology and spearheads the core writing team on tech news

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