The amount of salts – salt content – is among the main indicators determining the quality of water used for cooking, drinking, watering, technical needs. Salts consist of metals, hydroxyls, acid residues. Their presence – the mineralization of water – improves its taste and chemical composition. In a small amount, In excess strongly worsens, brings great harm to human health and nature – soils, reservoirs, flora, fauna. Salts in the water solution should be present in the amount prescribed by the standards. The process of purifying water with salt to a normal state is called desalination (demineralization).
What salts in the water need to be cleaned
Salts include metal compounds with different chemicals. Depending on the composition, they are divided into several groups.
|Group||Content of Substances Other Than Metals||Salt name, formula|
formed by replacing hydrogen cations present in acids, metal cations
|Acid Residue||NaCl sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate NH4NO3, Al aluminum sulfate2(SO4)3, sodium carbonate Na2CO3, potassium orthophosphate K3PO4|
are formed by incomplete neutralization of multi-core acid
|Calc hydro carbonate Ca (HCO3)2, NaHCO sodium hydrocarbonate3, NaH sodium dihydrophosphate2PO4, sodium pyrophosphate Na2HPO4|
are formed by incomplete neutralization of the multi-acid base
|Hydroxochloride Magnesium MgOHCl, Iron Dihydroxonitrate Fe (OH)2NO3, copper hydrocarbonate (CuOH)2CO3, Iron Hydroxonitrate Fe (OH) (NO3)2|
|Complex cation and anion|
Complex anion and cation
|potassium K tetrahydroxocinate2[Zn(OH)4q, diaminmine chloride3)2z Cl, potassium hexaciaoferrate K4[Fe(CN)6q, hexahydroxoaluminat potassium K3[Al(OH)6z, tetraakwamedi cu sulfate (H2O)4]SO4|
Content of substances other than metals Salt name, formula
formed by replacing hydrogen cations present in acids, metal cations
acid residue NaCl sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate NH4NO3, Al aluminum sulfate2(SO4)3, sodium carbonate Na2CO3, potassium orthophosphate K3PO4
are formed by incomplete neutralization of multi-core acid residue hydrogen atoms Calc hydro carbonate Ca (HCO3)2, NaHCO sodium hydrocarbonate3, NaH sodium dihydrophosphate2PO4, sodium pyrophosphate Na2HPO4
are formed by incomplete neutralization of the multi-acid base acid residue hydroxo groups Hydroxochloride Magnesium MgOHCl, Iron Dihydroxonitrate Fe (OH)2NO3, copper hydrocarbon (CuOH)2CO3, Iron Hydroxonitrate Fe (OH) (NO3)2
Complex cation and anion
Complex anion and cation
potassium K tetrahydroxocinate2[Zn(OH)4q, diamantine chloride3)2z Cl, potassium hexacyanoferrate K4[Fe(CN)6q, hexahydroxoaluminat potassium K3[Al(OH)6z, tetraakwamedi cu sulfate (H2O)4]SO4
Salts can be simple, double, mixed, crystalline. Their composition depends on the degree of purification, ways of demineralization, the choice of equipment for cleaning water from salts.
All the water on the planet has a different salt composition. Especially a lot of compounds in artesian mining. The deeper the aquifers lie, the saltier they are – the presence of impurities varies in the range of 1000-10,000 mg/L. Among them almost always there are sulfates, chlorides, sulfides, phosphates, carbonates. Therefore, before use, it is necessary to clean the water from salts.
What happens if there is a lot of salt in the water
What happens if you don’t remove salt from the water and use liquid with different salts?
The excessive salt content in water solutions significantly impacts human health, performance, repairs, and overall life of equipment, engineering hydraulic networks. That’s why plants have been developed to purify water from salts.
How water with high salt content affects the body
Short-term consumption of drinks high in salts in water is safe but can cause discomfort – rest and stomach pain, decline of forces. So the body tries to bring out excess calcium, potassium, magnesium. If there is a lot of salt in the water, then all the organs begin to work in an elevated mode – increases the load on the heart, kidneys, liver. It would help if you thought about how to remove salts from the water.
In moderate doses, sulfates and chlorides improve the taste. The excess worsens, giving the drink a brackish taste with unpleasant bitters. If there are sulfates over 250 mg/l, there is an unpleasant medicinal taste, possibly a bowel disorder. Large amounts of sodium are dangerous for people with hypertension, can provoke a crisis. Moderate amounts of calcium are beneficial. It strengthens teeth and bones. When excess increases the rigidity of water. Calcites are deposited inside blood vessels, reduce ducts, disrupt metabolism. Connecting, they form stones, increase the risks of thrombosis. The water treatment system for home salts, bought on our website, will significantly improve health.
How high-salt water affects equipment
The increased salt content in water harmfully affects the work of machinery, causes corrosion of parts. Water pipes burst, boilers explode in boilers. Household appliances – water heaters, washing machines, kettles – are breaking quickly.
The weights fall into the sediment and accumulate on the hydraulic equipment’s inner surface, leading to failures and malfunctions. Even the small deposits of scum with a layer of 1.5 mm worsen the thermal conductivity of heating systems by 15%. Energy costs are increasing.
Constantly accumulating impurities worsen the quality of water flowing from the tap. Multi-kilometer pipelines are difficult to clean. It is better for water distribution companies to take care of in advance than to clean the water from salts before supplying liquid to engineering communications.
Water salinity standards
standards predetermine the presence of salt compounds The main document for drinking water, served from water systems, is SanPin 18.104.22.1684-01, for bottled SanPin 22.214.171.1246-02, for water from natural sources SanPin 126.96.36.1995-02. In GN 188.8.131.529-98 are given the maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of individual substances. If the real figures exceed the MAC, you need to remove the salts from the water.
For economic and technical water, the standards are specified in cost, TU, project documentation, instructions for equipment, and separately to components of hydro systems. Comparing the analysis result with the normative indicators will help businesses understand whether salt is needed from the water.
Salinity and mineralization indicators:
|Ultra-presy – less than 100 mg/L||Fresh – up to 1 g/l|
|Fresh – up to 1000 mg/L||Weaklyized – 1-2 g/l|
|Weak – 1001-3000 mg/L||Small mineralization – 2-5 g/l|
|Salt – 3001-10000 mg/L||Medium-formed – 5-15 g/l|
|Strongly salted – 10001-50000 mg/L||High mineralization – 15-30 g/l|
|Brine – 50,000-300,000 mg/L||Partiolath mines – 35-150 g/l|
|Ultra-dissol – above 300,000 mg/L||Solid-soluble – more than 150 g/l|
The most useful for the body is fresh, low-mineralized water with a salt concentration of 100 mg/l (100 ppm). The limit of general mineralization of MAC is 1000 mg/l, tasty is considered a liquid with a sleuth of 500-600 mg/litre. The maximum allowable number of chloride-sulfate compounds – 200-400, hydrocarbon – 250-500, phosphate – 3.5 mg/L.
Strict standards of sale continence are set in the industry for working technical fluids. Even seawater can be cleaned of dissolved salts by filtering and then used for any purpose.
Water high in salt – how to determine the amount of salt in the water
The presence of salt impurities is felt organoleptically:
- The taste is brackish, with unpleasant acid bitterness or bitter-salted.
- Smell with a sharp characteristic hue.
- Gray or white plaque on the dishes.
- Long cooking of vegetables, the stiffness of boiled meat.
- Skin tightening, tingling after washing.
- Dryness, brittle hair.
- In hard water, the foaming properties of detergents are weaker, their consumption increases.
The exact number of salt impurities can be determined by ordering chemical analysis in the laboratory. They will calculate the total mineralization, the number of individual substances, the dry residue. Based on the calculations obtained, it is easy to choose industrial and household installations for water treatment from salts.
MAC values for some elements per mg/l:
- sodium – 200;
- calcium – 100;
- magnesium – 50;
- potassium – 12;
- Copper – 1.0;
- iron – 0.3.
You can make measurements yourself with special portable devices – soldiers. The TDS-meter analyzer measures the total amount of substances in the water solution (the number of salt particles per 1 million particles of water: 1 ppm and 1 mg/l). It gives a mineralization indicator, depending on the total concentration of ions (positive cations, negative anions).
Salt content depends on the temperature. When the water heats, the sediment on the bottom and walls of the dishes is much more intense than in vessels with cold water. At different temperatures, the measurements will be different. When choosing water purification plants with salt, the average annual indicators are oriented. To get them, you need to take samples for analysis every season.
How to clean water from salt
How you can remove salt from the water – cleaning is done in different ways. Household water flowing from the tap can be defended, distilled, frozen/defrosted, filtered, or boiled. These methods are suitable for handling a small number of water solutions.
The liquid extracted from natural open or deep underground sources is treated more thoroughly by complex industrial methods, among which they apply:
- Mechanical cleaning of impurities present in the form of large particles of magnitude 5 microns.
- Cleaned with a variety of sediment filters that capture small particles.
- The use of chemical reagents – resins, lime, sulfa.
- Electrodeionization with ion exchange material.
- Reverse osmosis is a particularly effective membrane version of desalination.
When choosing ways to clean water from salts, when selecting equipment are taken into account: production tasks, the purpose of liquid, the power of flow, pressure, other factors.
Reverse osmosis (RO Water Purifier)- the main method of water purification from salts
In the reverse-septic process, the water solution is passed through the microscopic capillaries of the membrane. Through them, water molecules penetrate unhindered, but all other microparticles are delayed. Is it possible to clean water from salt by 99.9% – installations sold on Diesel’s website very deeply produce the removal of all salts and impurities. The quality of water purification from salts and metals is close to 100%.
The compact line, which makes it easy to remove water salts, performs several functions at once. In addition to salts, it removes other harmful impurities, producing a comprehensive cleaning of unwanted chemicals. The process does not form deposits that can clog the system or slip into a purified solution. The liquid becomes transparent, soft, suitable for various needs – washing, eating, and drinking, for supplying household appliances and industrial systems.
On the diesel website, you can buy different reverse-ommetic water purification systems from salts:
- Reverse osmosis installations for various industrial plants.
- Two-speed units with a different performance from 50 liters to 20 m3/hour are used in medicine, energy, radio electronics, metallurgy.
- Installations for the whole house are in demand in private housebuilding. They are purchased by the owners of country mansions, cottages, bringing water from autonomous sources.
- Household reverse osmosis systems are in demand even among owners of small catering companies. The compact device is placed under the kitchen sink and provides residents with useful demineralized water.
Plants that remove water salts extract up to 98-99 % of impurities, qualitatively improving water taste.
Benefits of reverse desalination plants
Water, cleaned, when heated, does not form a saltiness. The life of industrial equipment, household appliances, all life support systems – heating, water, sewerage – is extended for a long time. Cleaned water solutions can be safely used in production, in hydraulic facilities, in boiler stations.
The cost of purchasing a reverse osmosis plant will quickly pay off and will benefit. They will get rid of leaks, breakdowns of hydraulic equipment, health problems.
Buy reverse osmosis, capable of purifying water from dissolved salts, suspended impurities, and colloidal particles, are convenient in Diesel Engineering. The company’s engineers will choose a complex that corresponds to private clients, public organizations, industrial productions. They will install, start, test. They will give an exhaustive consultation on the use of equipment. Provide warranty and ongoing service.